назад Оглавление вперед


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УСЛОВИЯ ТОРГОВЛИ

Рональд Финдли

Terms of Trade

Ronald Findlay

Два наиболее важных вопроса относительно международно!! торговли заключаются в следующем: «Какие блага будет экспортировать каждая страна?» и «Каковы окажутся пропорции обмена экспортируемых благ на блага, ввозимые из-за границы?»

Первьш вопрос связан с проблематико1т «сравнительных преимуществ», а BTopoii - с проблематико1т «услови1т торговли», которые и будут служить объектом обсуждения в настоящем очерке. Давид Рикардо в гл. 7 «Начал политическо1т экономии» дал исчерпывающи!! ответ на первьш вопрос и внес значительный вклад в разрешение второго, хотя окончательный ответ на него бьш дан лишь Дж.С. Миллем и А. Маршаллом.

В последующем изложении будет удобно предположить для упрощения, что имеется только один экспортируемый и один импортируемый товар; иногда же полезно ввести еще более жесткое предположение о том, что в наличии имеется лишь один фактор производства - например, труд определенного качества. На практике, разумеется, нам пришлось бы использовать индексы цен и физического объема экспорта и импорта, что привело бы к возникновению комплекса известных проблем.

КОНЦЕПЦИИ И ДЕФИНИЦИИ. Существует несколько альтернативных концепций и соответствующих статистических показателей условий торговли. Самые известные концепции условий торговли перечислены ниже.

(1) Товарные, или чистые бартерные, условия торговли. Это - наиболее распространенное значение термина «условия торговли», которое, как правило, имеется в виду всякий раз, когда он используется без каких-либо уточнений. В принципе товарные условия торговли представляют собой относительную цену «экспортируемого блага», показывая, сколько единиц «импортируемого блага» можно получить за одну единицу экспортируемого. Представление о размерности этого показателя может дать выражение «девять сюртучных пуговиц за кусок меди (copper disk)*» из песенки Белого рыцаря (Льюис Кэрролл, «Алиса в

В русском переводе «Алисы в Зазеркалье» словосочетание «соррег disk» обычно передается как «медный грош», однако в данном контексте такой перевод некорректен. Здесь используется именно «неденежная» трактовка обмена, когда одно «благо» непосредственно обменивается на другое. - Примеч. пер.

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